Background

Concepts for Lip Balm:

  • Grades K-3 (early elementary school)

At this grade level, students know that when two or more substances are combined, a new substance may be formed with properties that are different from those of the original materials. They also know matter has three forms—solid, liquid, and gas—and that evaporation and melting are changes that occur when the objects are heated—these changes involve a change from one form of matter to another.

Show the kids the various ingredients in lip balm and let them touch beeswax. What properties does beeswax have? Is it a solid, liquid or gas?  What properties do honey or almond oil have?  Beeswax looks like a solid and honey and almond oil both are liquids. Beeswax is almost a liquid at room temperature and it melts to form a liquid at higher temperatures. If we mix almond oil with beeswax, the properties of this new substance are different than the original materials since we get material that is somewhere in between a liquid and a solid, in other words, a soft solid.

  • Grades 4-5 (late elementary school)

At this grade level, students know how to measure and estimate the weight, length, or volume of objects and the differences in chemical and physical properties of substances are used to separate mixtures and identify compounds. In addition, they can follow a set of written instructions for a scientific investigation. Afterwards, they can rate Lip Balm on look, taste and feel in comparison to balm made as demo or their friends lip balm.

  • Grades 6-8 (middle school)

Students know that energy can be carried from one place to another by heat flow. Heat flows in solids by conduction (which involves no flow of matter) and in fluids by conduction and by convection (which involves flow of matter). Heat energy is also transferred between objects by radiation (radia­tion can travel through space). Students can select and use appropriate tools and technology to perform tests or collect and display data.

Students also know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements. The states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion, that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently.